# Probability

Probability theory uses mathematics to measure the likelihood of something happening. Probability theory may be applied in many areas, including genetics.

# Materials for Probability

### Articles/Research

##### Independent Assortment and Probability

Description: A well illustrated article explaining how to determine the likelihood that a squab (baby pigeon) will have a crest of feathers on its head.

- Source: Genetics Science Learning Center at the University of Utah
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- URL: http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/pigeons/probability/

### Games

##### DNA Roulette

Description: This odds game makes learning about the probabilistic nature of genomics a blast. Unlike traditional roulette where the betting table and odds are always the same, DNA Roulettes odds are different for each disease or trait. Even within a disease, the odds are different depending on which of several possible genotypes is randomly selected by the game engine for that round.

- Source: Michigan State University
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- URL: http://gel.msu.edu/DNAroulette/more.html

### Interactive Tutorials

##### Punnett Squares

Description: An interactive Punnett square activity

- Source: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
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- URL: http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/virtual_labs/BL_05/BL_05.html

### Teacher Resources

##### Basic Probability and Chi-Squared Tests (Lesson Plans/Lesson Activities)

Description: An expert authored advanced in-class exercise teaching critical skills for classic genetic analysis, including probability, making predictions, and assessment.

- Source: Genetics Society of America
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- URL: http://www.genetics-gsa.org/education/GSAPREP.2013.005.shtml

##### Mendelian Genetics, Probability, Pedigree, and Chi-Square Statistics (Lesson Plans/Lesson Activities)

Description: A lesson that requires students to work through a series of questions pertaining to the genetics of sickle cell disease and its relationship to malaria. These questions will probe students' understanding of Mendelian genetics, probability, pedigree analysis, and chi-square statistics.

- Source: Howard Hughes Medical Institute
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- URL: https://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/mendelian-genetics-probability-pedigree-and-chi-square-statistics

##### The Probabilities of Problems: A Look at Inheritance (Lesson Plans/Lesson Activities)

Description: Students learn how to calculate the the probabilities of passing on certain genetic disorders and then evaluate case studies involving genetic testing.

- Source: PBS & WGBH Educational Foundation
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- URL: http://www.pbs.org/inthebalance/archives/ourgenes/lesson_probabilities.html

### Video

##### What are the Chances?

Description: A captivating video introduction to probability, using math to make predictions.

- Source: Genetics Science Learning Center at the University of Utah
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- URL: http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/math/chances/