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The GeneEd website is scheduled to be retired on March 31, 2019. Selected GeneEd content will be transferred to Genetics Home Reference, another online resource from the National Library of Medicine.

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Probability theory uses mathematics to measure the likelihood of something happening.  Probability theory may be applied in many areas, including genetics.

Materials for Probability


Independent Assortment and Probability

Description: A well illustrated article explaining how to determine the likelihood that a squab (baby pigeon) will have a crest of feathers on its head.


DNA Roulette

Description: This odds game makes learning about the probabilistic nature of genomics a blast. Unlike traditional roulette where the betting table and odds are always the same, DNA Roulettes odds are different for each disease or trait. Even within a disease, the odds are different depending on which of several possible genotypes is randomly selected by the game engine for that round.

Interactive Tutorials

Punnett Squares

Description: An interactive Punnett square activity

Teacher Resources

Basic Probability and Chi-Squared Tests (Lesson Plans/Lesson Activities)

Description: An expert authored advanced in-class exercise teaching critical skills for classic genetic analysis, including probability, making predictions, and assessment.

Mendelian Genetics, Probability, Pedigree, and Chi-Square Statistics (Lesson Plans/Lesson Activities)

Description: A lesson that requires students to work through a series of questions pertaining to the genetics of sickle cell disease and its relationship to malaria. These questions will probe students' understanding of Mendelian genetics, probability, pedigree analysis, and chi-square statistics.

The Probabilities of Problems: A Look at Inheritance (Lesson Plans/Lesson Activities)

Description: Students learn how to calculate the the probabilities of passing on certain genetic disorders and then evaluate case studies involving genetic testing.


What are the Chances?

Description: A captivating video introduction to probability, using math to make predictions.